The term modern furniture refers to furniture produced since the late 19th century. The idea has its roots in modernism. In that period of time we have had many tremendous differences in design different from the furniture understanding until that time.
Among these differences we see that the form of furniture evolved from visually heavy to visually light. Apart from that, we see that dark or gilded carved wood and richly patterned fabrics turned into to the glittering simplicity and geometry of polished metal.
In Western world manufacturers tried to keep a kind of connection of tradition and history. But the message of their work has been about the present and the future.
The modern movement demanded and demands newness, innovation and originality. Not only innovative methods, but also innovative materials have been the case and main points. In modern furniture we see more steel and plastics.
With modern furniture it is not obligatory to use ornament, as it was before. Many people couldn’t think about a furniture without ornament, if the furniture was of high class.
As examples you can check Eileen Gray side table, Barcelona chair, Noguchi coffee table just to have some idea.